Nelumbo nucifera

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

Languages: English

Overview

General Description

Petiole 1-2 m long, terete, fistulous, glabrous or papillae hard and scattered; leaf blade abaxially blue-green, orbicular, 25-90 cm in diameter, papery, glabrous, glaucous, water-repellent, margin entire. Flowers 10-23 cm in diameter; peduncles longer than petioles, glabrous or sparsely spinulate. Tepals caducous, pink or white, oblong-elliptic to obovate, 5-10 cm long, 3--5 cm wide. Stamens slightly longer than receptacle; filament slender; anther linear, 1-2 mm long; connective appendage clavate, to 7 mm, incurved. Receptacle accrescent, turbinate, 5-10 cm in diameter. Fruit oblong to ovoid, 1.0-2.0 cm long, 7-15 cm wide, glabrous; pericarp thick, hardened.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Description

Genetics

There are some reports for the chromosomal data of Nelumbo nucifera. The chromosome number is 2n = 16 (Wang et al., 1985; Uchiyama et al., 1986; Wei et al., 1994; Yang et al., 1998).

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Ecology and Distribution

Cyclicity

Flowering from July to August.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Distribution

Nelumbo nucifera is occurring in throughout China except Nei Mongol, Qinghai, and Xizang, Bhutan, India, Indonesia (Java), Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia (Far East), Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; SW Asia, Australia.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Evolution

The floral development of Nelumbo nucifera was compared with that noted in previous studies of Nelumbo, Nymphaeaceae, and other basal angiosperms. Important features include developmental evidence of only two sepals, development of an androecial ring meristem, and an apocarpous gynoecium composed of ascidiate carpels that become embedded in an expanded receptacle. Secretory papillate trichomes cover the stigma and line the stylar canal. This pattern of floral development, as well as the pattern of carpel closure by secretion, is common in several paleoherbs and eudicots and indicates phylogenetic affinity between Nelumbonaceae and basal angiosperms. Because of its unique floral development and anatomy, Nelumbo appears to be an isolated member of the eudicot clade (Hayes et al., 2000).
Analyses of genetic relationships in Nelumbo nucifera using nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence data, ISSR and RAPD markers showed Chinese and Japanese lotus comprise a single cluste (Han et al., 2007).

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Habitat

Growing in Lakes, ponds, cultivated.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Relevance

Uses

Nelumbo nucifera is cultivated for its edible rhizomes and seeds.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Taxonomy

  • Nelumbo komarovii Grossheim (synonym)
  • Nelumbo nucifera var. macrorhizomata Nakai (synonym)
  • Nelumbium speciosum Willdenow (synonym)
  • Nymphaea nelumbo Linnaeus (synonym)

References

Han, Y. C., Zhou M. Q., Hu Z. L., Song Y. C., Teng C. Z., Chang F. H., et al. (2007).  Analyses of genetic relationships in Nelumbo nucifera using nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence data, ISSR and RAPD markers. Aquatic Botany. 87,
Hayes, V., Schneider E. L., & Carlquist S. (2000).  Floral Development of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae). Int. J Plant Sci.. 161,
Uchiyama, H., Nakata M., Konishi T., & Tanaka R. (1986).  Karyotype of Nelumbo nucifera grown from an ancient fruit excavated in Liaoning province, China. Annals of the Tsukuba Botanical Garden. 4,
Wang, N. Z., Ma F. L., & Li L. (1985).  Analysis of respective chromosome numbers and karyotypes of twenty varieties of Nelumbo. Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research. 3,
Wei, P. H., Chen W. P., & Chen R. Y. (1994).  Study on the karyotype analysis of Nymphaeaceae and its taxonomic position. Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica. 32,
Yang, R. F., Guo Q. Q., Zheng S. X., & Cheng C. (1998).  Studies on the karyotype and Giemsa C-banding pattern of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Journal Hunan Agric. Univ.. 24,