Circaea repens Wallich ex Ascherson & Magnus
- genus Circaea L.
Plants 15-100 cm tall, pubescent with falcate hairs, inflorescence with capitate and clavately tipped glandular hairs. Rhizomes with tuberous thickening at apex. Leaves narrowly to broadly ovate, rarely nearly orbicular, 1.8-9 cm long, 1.5-5 cm wide, base rounded, broadly cuneate, or cordate, margin denticulate, apex acute to shortly acuminate. Inflorescence simple or branched, sometimes also with terminal racemes on upper axillary branches. Flowering pedicels perpendicular to axis of raceme or slightly ascending, with stipitate glandular hairs, with or without a minute bracteole at base. Buds sparsely pubescent, rarely glabrous; floral tube 0.4-0.8 mm. Sepals spreading to reflexed, white, green or reddish tinged, oblong to ovate, 1.8-2.5 mm long, 1.1-1.5 mm broad, apex gradually rounded to obtuse or acute. Petals white or pink, broadly to narrowly obtriangular in outline, V-shaped, 1.4-2.3 mm long, 1.3-2 mm broad, apical notch 3/4 length of petal. Stamens ca. equal to or shorter than style; nectary inconspicuous, within floral tube. Fruiting pedicel and mature fruit 7.5-15 mm. Fruit narrowly to broadly clavate, 3.5-4.2 mm long, 0.9-1.6 mm broad, tapering smoothly to pedicel, without prominent ribs and deep sulci, but with a shallow groove representing an extension of pedicel; locule 1, but with trace of a second locule in cross-section. Seed 1.
Circaea repens is close relative of Circaea alpina, but differs from the latter in its petals notched to more than 1/2 their length (vs. to 1/2 or less their length), V-shaped (vs. obovate to obtriangular), pedicels glandular pubescent (vs. glabrous), leaves with 9-15 (vs. 4-10) secondary veins, combined length of mature fruit and pedicel 7.5-15 mm (vs. 3.5-7.8 mm).
The chromosomal number of Circaea repens 2n = 22 (Seavey and Boufford, 1983).
The fruit of Circaea repens often shows a trace of a second locule in cross-section, but bears only a single seed. In many ways this species is intermediate between species with one and two locules.
Ecology and Distribution
Flowering from July to October; fruiting from July to November.
Circaea repens is W Hubei, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan of China, Bhutan, N India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan.
Circaea (Onagraceae), a genus of seven species from the northern hemisphere, forms a monophylctic group defined by the following synapomorphies: two stamens (opposite the sepals), fruits indehiscent capsules, hooked hairs on the fruits, and perianth parts reduced to two. A cladistic analysis of the genus was performed using characters from morphology, anatomy and palynology. Results of the cladistic analysis support Circaea repens and all six subspecies of C. alpina (single-seeded fruits, stolons terminated by tubers, and viscin threads reduced or absent) form a monophyletic clade (Boufford et al., 1990).
Growing in moist to wet forests, thickets, and open places; 1500-3300 m.
- Circaea alpina Linnaeus var. himalaica C. B. Clarke. (synonym)