Podophyllum emodi

Podophyllum emodi Wall. ex Royle

Languages: English

Overview

General Description

Perennial herbs, 15-40 cm tall, erect, smooth, glabrous, somewhat fleshy or succulent, simple; rhizome short, horizontally creeping, scaly above, with dense thick fibrous roots; scales up to 5 cm long, 1-2.5 cm broad, ovate-lanceolate, striated, pale, entire; stem scapigerous, simple, erect, terete, naked below with 2 alternate leaves above the middle and usually 1 supra axillary flower (or fruit). Leaves palmate, deeply 3 lobed; lamina 7-12 cm long, 20-25 cm wide, with petiole about as long as the lobe and somewhat swollen at base; lateral lobes obliquely ovate, sometimes 2-lobulate; middle lobe broadly elliptic and symmetrical; all lobes sharply toothed, acute to slightly acuminate, 5-12 cm long, 3-5 cm broad, sessile, coarsely veined below. Flowers white to pink, 2-4 cm in diameter, ± terminal in bud but becoming supra axillary later; peduncle short, elongating up to 2 (-3) cm in fruit, erect or ascending, somewhat thickened. Sepals 3, broadly oblong, caducous, petaloid. Petals (4-) 6, obovate-oblong, 2-3 cm long, 1-1.5 cm broad. Stamens usually 6, about half as long as the petals; filaments slightly flattened; anthers ca. 3 mm long, oblong, obtuse. Berry oblong-ovoid or oblong-ellipsoid, 2-4 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm broad, scarlet or red, pulpy, narrowed below the stigma, many seeded; seeds 2-3 mm in diameter, obovoid or suborbicular.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Description

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Podophyllum emodi is 2n = 12 (Kosenko, 1979; Malla e al., 1981; Siddique et al., 1990, 1998).

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Ecology and Distribution

Cyclicity

Flowering from May to June; fruiting from July to September.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Distribution

Podophyllum emodi is Xizang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi of China, Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, N India. Kashmir, Pakistan, E Afghanistan.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Evolution

Sequences of the chloroplast genes matK and rbcL and nuclear ribosomal ITS2 were used for phylogenetic analyses of Berberidaceae. Three major clades were recognized, corresponding to the chromosome base numbers x = 5 6, 7, and 8/10. Bongardia was sister to the clade containing Achlys and the Podophyllum group, which consists of Diphylleia, Sinopodophyllum, Podophyllum, and Dysosma (Wang et al., 2007). The estimated age for the split of Sinopodophyllum (EA) – Podophyllum (ENA) was 6.94 ± 3.19 Ma from rbcL data (Xiang et al., 2000) and 6.52 ± 1.89 Ma from ITS data (Liu et al., 2002), and is 5.8 ± 0.6 Ma from matK, rbcL, and ITS (Wang et al., 2007).

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Habitat

Growing in rich humus, under forest, wetland of forest margin; 2200-4300 m.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Relevance

Uses

Fruits of Podophyllum emodi are edible and rootstock produce podophyllol, a sticky resin, quarcetin and podophyllo-toxin of medicinal importance.

Author(s): Wen, Jun
Rights holder(s): Wen, Jun

Taxonomy

  • Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (synonym)
  • Podophyllum emodi var. hexandrum (Royle) Chatt. & Muker. (synonym)
  • Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying (synonym)

References

Kosenko, V. N. (1979).  Comparative karyological study of representatives of the family Berberidaceae s. l.. Bot. Zhurn.. 64,
Liu, J. Q., Chen Z. D., & Lu A. M. (2002).  Molecular evidence for the sister relationship of the eastern Asia-North American intercontinental species pair in the Podophyllum group (Berberidaceae). Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica. 43,
Malla, S. B., Bhattarai S., Gorkhali M., & Saiju H. (1981).  In chromosome number reports LXX. (KayasthaM., Ed.).Taxon. 30,
Siddique, M. A. A., Wafai B. A., & Dhar U. (1990).  Chromosome complement and nucleolar organization in Podophyllum hexandrum Royle. Genetica. 82,
Wang, W., Chen Z. D., Liu Y., & Li R. Q. (2007).  Phylogenetic and Biogeographic Diversification of Berberidaceae in the Northern Hemisphere. (LiJ H., Ed.).Systematic Botany. 32,
Xiang, Q. Y., Soltis D. E., Soltis P. S., & Manchester S. R. (2000).  Timing the eastern Asian-eastern North American floristic disjunction: molecular clock corroborates paleontological estimates. (CrawfordD J., Ed.).Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 15,