Podophyllum emodi Wall. ex Royle
- genus Podophyllum L.
Perennial herbs, 15-40 cm tall, erect, smooth, glabrous, somewhat fleshy or succulent, simple; rhizome short, horizontally creeping, scaly above, with dense thick fibrous roots; scales up to 5 cm long, 1-2.5 cm broad, ovate-lanceolate, striated, pale, entire; stem scapigerous, simple, erect, terete, naked below with 2 alternate leaves above the middle and usually 1 supra axillary flower (or fruit). Leaves palmate, deeply 3 lobed; lamina 7-12 cm long, 20-25 cm wide, with petiole about as long as the lobe and somewhat swollen at base; lateral lobes obliquely ovate, sometimes 2-lobulate; middle lobe broadly elliptic and symmetrical; all lobes sharply toothed, acute to slightly acuminate, 5-12 cm long, 3-5 cm broad, sessile, coarsely veined below. Flowers white to pink, 2-4 cm in diameter, ± terminal in bud but becoming supra axillary later; peduncle short, elongating up to 2 (-3) cm in fruit, erect or ascending, somewhat thickened. Sepals 3, broadly oblong, caducous, petaloid. Petals (4-) 6, obovate-oblong, 2-3 cm long, 1-1.5 cm broad. Stamens usually 6, about half as long as the petals; filaments slightly flattened; anthers ca. 3 mm long, oblong, obtuse. Berry oblong-ovoid or oblong-ellipsoid, 2-4 cm long, 1.5-2.5 cm broad, scarlet or red, pulpy, narrowed below the stigma, many seeded; seeds 2-3 mm in diameter, obovoid or suborbicular.
The chromosomal number of Podophyllum emodi is 2n = 12 (Kosenko, 1979; Malla e al., 1981; Siddique et al., 1990, 1998).
Ecology and Distribution
Flowering from May to June; fruiting from July to September.
Podophyllum emodi is Xizang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi of China, Sikkim, Nepal, Bhutan, N India. Kashmir, Pakistan, E Afghanistan.
Sequences of the chloroplast genes matK and rbcL and nuclear ribosomal ITS2 were used for phylogenetic analyses of Berberidaceae. Three major clades were recognized, corresponding to the chromosome base numbers x = 5 6, 7, and 8/10. Bongardia was sister to the clade containing Achlys and the Podophyllum group, which consists of Diphylleia, Sinopodophyllum, Podophyllum, and Dysosma (Wang et al., 2007). The estimated age for the split of Sinopodophyllum (EA) – Podophyllum (ENA) was 6.94 ± 3.19 Ma from rbcL data (Xiang et al., 2000) and 6.52 ± 1.89 Ma from ITS data (Liu et al., 2002), and is 5.8 ± 0.6 Ma from matK, rbcL, and ITS (Wang et al., 2007).
Growing in rich humus, under forest, wetland of forest margin; 2200-4300 m.
Fruits of Podophyllum emodi are edible and rootstock produce podophyllol, a sticky resin, quarcetin and podophyllo-toxin of medicinal importance.
- Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (synonym)
- Podophyllum emodi var. hexandrum (Royle) Chatt. & Muker. (synonym)
- Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Ying (synonym)